I’ve recently been working on some Python code that uses the sqlite3 module from the standard library (the exact details are not particularly relevant here), and noticed that strangely, any parameterized query that looks like SELECT * FROM table WHERE ? = foo; simply fails to find anything even if running the same query without parameterization works correctly. This is somewhat unexpected from my perspective given that SELECT * FROM table WHERE ? IS NOT NULL; appears to work correctly.
db = sqlite3.connect(':memory:')
db.execute('CREATE TABLE test(id INTEGER, data INTEGER);')
db.execute('INSERT INTO test VALUES (1, 1);')
assert db.execute('SELECT * FROM test WHERE data = 1;').fetchall()
assert db.execute('SELECT * FROM test WHERE ? = 1;', ['data']).fetchall()
Both queries should in theory end up being identical, and both assertions should thus pass, but the second one fails with an assertion error on at least CPython 3.10.11 and CPython 3.11.3.
A look through both the module documentation and PEP 249 gives no indication that things should behave this way, and the SQLite C API documentation is not particularly helpful either (I understand that under the hood the parameterization functionality is using the various sqlite3_bind_* functions, but the documentation there also doesn’t make any indication that things should behave this way), so I’m at a bit of a loss here. I’m hoping someone else may understand what’s going on here better than I do so that I can determine whether I should be opening a bug or a documentation issue about this.
I suggest you try out these things in the SQLite CLI first. The string literal 'data' is not equal to the numeric literal 1. Note that SQLite use single quotes to denote string literals.
SQLite version 3.39.5 2022-10-14 20:58:05
Enter ".help" for usage hints.
Connected to a transient in-memory database.
Use ".open FILENAME" to reopen on a persistent database.
sqlite> CREATE TABLE test(id INTEGER, data INTEGER);
sqlite> INSERT INTO test VALUES (1, 1);
sqlite> SELECT * FROM test WHERE data = 1;
sqlite> SELECT * FROM test WHERE 'data' = 1;
This doesn’t seem to be explicitly documented anywhere (at least, not in the Python documentation), and seems to be at least a little counterintuitive to me given my understanding that parameterization is supposed to be part of sanitizing data used in the queries (and substituting in a column name gives just as much opportunity for SQL injection attacks as substituting in a value).
Of course, part of the issue with my understanding may also just be my use case. I entirely accept that needing to choose a column name for a query at runtime based on user input when the possible column names are also computed at runtime is a bit atypical (but then, I’ll readily take this limitation over the performance implications of trying to use a list of dicts for the same purpose, already benchmarked that and SQLite is so much faster).
That’s exactly the problem though. You’re sanitizing DATA, not column names. If the parameter is the string "data", that has to be treated as a string in SQL, not a column name, because otherwise you achieve nothing that can’t be done with string interpolation.
Do you ever need to be able to substitute in either a column name or a string literal? In my experience, any given location only ever gets one or the other. Use parameterization when you need to supply custom data, and use string interpolation when you need to dynamically choose the column name.
It’s like how, in Python, you can’t use a variable in an attribute lookup:
m = "append"
stuff = 
stuff.m(42) # doesn't work
but instead have to use a dedicated feature that makes it obvious that you’re doing dynamic programming:
Interpolation of dynamic column names is very rare, at least compared to insertion of (often untrusted) data.